Amgen Inc., a biotechnology medicines company, discovers, develops, manufactures, and markets human therapeutics based on advances in cellular and molecular biology for grievous illnesses primarily in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Its principal products include Neulasta and NEUPOGEN to stimulate the production of neutrophils, which is type of white blood cell that helps the body fight infections; Enbrel, an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor that plays a role in the body’s response to inflammatory diseases; and Aranesp and EPOGEN erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, which stimulate the production of red blood cells. The company also markets other products comprising Sensipar/Mimpara, a small molecule calcimimetic that lowers serum calcium levels; Vectibix, a monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor; and Nplate, a thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist that mimics endogenous TPO, the primary driver of platelet production, as well as offers Prolia and XGEVA denosumab, which are human monoclonal antibodies that specifically targets RANKL, an essential regulator of osteoclasts. In addition, it provides product candidates in mid- to late-stage development in various therapeutic areas, such as oncology, hematology, inflammation, bone health, nephrology, cardiovascular, and general medicine, which includes neuroscience. The company markets its products to healthcare providers, including physicians or their clinics, dialysis centers, hospitals, and pharmacies; consumers; and wholesale distributors of pharmaceutical products, as well as through the Internet. It has various collaborative arrangements with Pfizer Inc.; Glaxo Group Limited; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited; Daiichi Sankyo Company, Limited; DaVita Inc.; Fresenius Medical Care North America; Cytokinetics, Inc.; Kirin-Amgen, Inc.; and AstraZeneca Plc. Amgen Inc. was founded in 1980 and is headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California.