Vale S.A. engages in the exploration, production, and sale of basic metals in Brazil and internationally. The company is also involved in fertilizers, logistics, and steel businesses. Its Bulk Material segment engages in the extraction of iron ore and pellet production, as well as operation of Brazilian northern and southern transportation systems, including railroads, ports, and terminals related to mining operations. This segment also includes manganese ore mining and ferroalloys activities. The company’s Base Metals segment produces non-ferrous minerals, including nickel, copper, and aluminum; and is involved in aluminum trading, alumina refining, aluminum metal smelting, and bauxite mining activities. Its Fertilizers segment provides potash, phosphates, and nitrogen. The company’s Logistic Services segment provides cargo transportation services for third parties through ships, ports, and railroads. In addition, Vale S.A. generates energy through hydroelectric power plants. The company was founded in 1942 and is based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.