Express Scripts Holding Company provides a range of pharmacy benefit management (PBM) services in North America. It offers healthcare management and administration services on behalf of its clients, which include health maintenance organizations, health insurers, third-party administrators, employers, union-sponsored benefit plans, workers’ compensation plans, and government health programs. The company’s integrated PBM services comprise network claims processing, home delivery services, patient care and direct specialty and fertility home delivery to patients, benefit plan design consultation, drug utilization review, formulary management, drug data analysis services, distribution of injectable drugs to patients’ homes and physicians’ offices, bio-pharma services, and fulfillment of prescriptions to low-income patients through manufacturer-sponsored patient assistance programs. It is also involved in the distribution of pharmaceuticals and medical supplies to providers and clinics; and healthcare administration and implementation of consumer-directed healthcare solutions. The company was formerly known as Express Scripts, Inc. and changed its name to Express Scripts Holding Company in April 2012 as a result of its merger with Medco Health Solutions, Inc. Express Scripts Holding Company was founded in 1986 and is headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri.