Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings operates as an independent clinical laboratory company worldwide. The company offers a range of clinical laboratory tests and procedures, such as blood chemistry analyses, urinalyses, blood cell counts, thyroid tests, Pap tests, hemoglobin A1C, PSA, STD tests, HCV tests, microbiology cultures and procedures, and alcohol and other substance-abuse tests that are used by the medical profession in core testing, patient diagnosis, and in the monitoring and treatment of diseases. It also provides specialty testing services in the areas of allergy, clinical trials, diagnostic genetics, women's health, cardiovascular disease, identity, forensics, infectious disease, endocrinology, oncology, coagulation, occupational testing, and pain management. In addition, the company offers a range of early-stage and late-stage drug development services to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, as well as laboratory testing services to the chemical, agrochemical, and food industries. Further, it operates an esoteric laboratory focused on personalized diagnostics for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders; and provides specialized forensic DNA analysis, proprietary DNA collection products, and relationship testing. The company provides its testing services through a sales force to the physicians, hospitals, managed care organizations, governmental agencies, employers, pharmaceutical companies, and other independent clinical laboratories. Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings has collaboration with university, hospital and academic institutions, such as Duke University, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Minnesota, and Yale University to license and commercialize new diagnostic tests. The company was founded in 1971 and is headquartered in Burlington, North Carolina.