Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings operates as an independent clinical laboratory company in the United States. The company offers a range of testing services used by the medical profession in routine testing, patient diagnosis, and in the monitoring and treatment of diseases. It also provides specialty testing services, such as HIV testing that include viral load measurements, genotyping and phenotyping, and host genetic factors for managing and treating HIV infections; molecular assays for influenza viruses, including H1N1; hormone/steroid testing services for the endocrine specialist; endocrine related genetic tests that comprise CYP21 mutation for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, SHOX gene for short stature, as well as the RET mutation for thyroid cancer; cytogenetic, molecular cytogenetic, biochemical, and molecular genetic tests; oncology tests for diagnosing and monitoring certain cancers and treatments; clinical laboratory testing for pharmaceutical and diagnostics companies; forensic identity testing used in criminal proceedings and parentage evaluation services; and testing services for the detection of drug and alcohol abuse. The company provides its testing services to independent physicians and physician groups, hospitals, managed care organizations, private and governmental customers, employers, pharmaceutical companies, and other independent clinical laboratories. It operates a network of 54 primary laboratories and approximately 1,700 patient service centers and STAT laboratories, as well as specialty testing laboratories. Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings has collaboration with university, hospital and academic institutions, such as Duke University, The Johns Hopkins University, the University of Minnesota, and Yale University to license and commercialize new diagnostic tests. The company was founded in 1971 and is headquartered in Burlington, North Carolina.