TOTAL S.A., together with its subsidiaries, operates as an integrated oil and gas company worldwide. The company operates in three segments: Upstream, Downstream, and Chemicals. The Upstream segment engages in the exploration, development, and production of oil and gas, liquefied natural gas, and electricity; and shipping and trading liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), as well as power generation from renewable energies, and coal production, trading, and marketing. As of December 31, 2011, it had combined proved reserves of 11,423 million barrels of oil equivalent of oil and gas. The Downstream segment is involved in refining, marketing, trading, and shipping crude oil and petroleum products. This segment also produces and markets a range of specialty products, such as lubricants, LPG, jet fuel, special fluids, heavy fuel, bitumen, marine fuels, and petrochemical feedstock. This segment holds interests in 20 refineries located in Europe, the United States, the French West Indies, Africa, and China, as well as operates a network of 14,819 service stations. The Chemicals segment produces base chemicals, including petrochemicals and fertilizers; and specialty chemicals, such as elastomer processing, adhesives, and electroplating chemistry. This segment serves the automotive, construction, electronics, aerospace, and convenience goods markets. TOTAL S.A. was founded in 1924 and is headquartered in Paris, France.