Vale S.A., together with its subsidiaries, engages in the research, production, and sale of iron ore and pellets, nickel, fertilizer, copper, coal, manganese, ferroalloys, cobalt, platinum group metals, and precious metals in Brazil and internationally. Its Bulk Material segment produces and extracts iron ore and pellet. This segment is also involved in the production and extraction of manganese, ferroalloys, and others ferrous products and services; and extraction of coal, as well as in the provision of railroad, port, and terminal logistics services. The company’s Base Metals segment produces and extracts non-ferrous minerals, including nickel and copper. Its Fertilizers segment provides a group of nutrients, such as potash, phosphates, and nitrogen. The company also invests in energy generation through operating hydroelectric plants and centers, as well as produces steel. The company was formerly known as Companhia Vale do Rio Doce and changed its name to Vale S.A. in May 2009. Vale S.A. was founded in 1942 and is headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Vale S.A. operates as a subsidiary of Valepar S.A.