Novartis AG, through its subsidiaries, engages in the research, development, manufacture, and marketing of healthcare products worldwide. Its Pharmaceuticals division offers prescription medicines in various therapeutic areas, including cardiovascular and metabolism; oncology; neuroscience and ophthalmics; respiratory; integrated hospital care; and other additional products. The company’s Alcon division provides various eye care products consisting of ophthalmic surgical equipment, instruments, disposable products, and intraocular lenses; medicines to treat chronic and acute diseases of the eye, and over-the-counter medicines for the eye; and contact lenses and lens care products. Its Sandoz division offers prescription medicines, as well as pharmaceutical and biotechnological active substances. This division provides active ingredients and finished dosage forms of pharmaceuticals; active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates, primarily antibiotics; protein or biotechnology-based products; and cytotoxic products for the hospital market, as well as offer biotech manufacturing services to other companies. The company’s Vaccines and Diagnostics division provides human vaccines and blood testing and molecular diagnostics products. This division sells influenza, meningococcal, pediatric, and traveler vaccines; and nucleic acid technology blood-screening products to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The company’s Consumer Health division consists of two divisions, including over-the-counter medicines that offer readily available consumer medicines; and Animal Health, which provides veterinary products for farm and companion animals. Novartis AG was founded in 1895 and is headquartered in Basel, Switzerland.