Novartis AG researches, develops, manufactures, and markets a range of healthcare products worldwide. It operates through three segments: Pharmaceuticals, Alcon, and Sandoz. The Pharmaceuticals segment offers patented prescription medicines for oncology, neuroscience, retina, immunology and dermatology, respiratory, cardio-metabolic, established medicines, and cell and gene therapies. The Alcon segment provides eye care products, including ophthalmic surgical equipment, instruments, disposable products, and intraocular lenses; medicines to treat chronic and acute diseases of the eye, and over-the-counter medicines for the eye; and contact lenses and lens care products. The Sandoz segment offers generic prescription medicines that include active ingredients and finished dosage forms of pharmaceuticals for dermatology, respiratory and ophthalmic, cardiovascular, metabolism, central nervous system, pain, gastrointestinal, and hormonal therapies; active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates primarily antibiotics; protein or other biotechnology-based products; and cytotoxic products for the hospital markets, as well as biotechnology manufacturing services to other companies. The company has collaboration and licensing agreements with Intellia Therapeutics for the discovery and development of new medicines using CRISPR genome editing technology; and with Caribou Biosciences for the development of drug discovery tools. Novartis AG was founded in 1895 and is headquartered in Basel, Switzerland.